Tag Archives: PCB

Power Brick: #GoldStandard Heat Sinks for DC/DC Converters

Power Brick

ATS Power Brick heat sinks are the #GoldStandard for cooling eighth, quarter, half, and full brick DC/DC power converters. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)


Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. (ATS) has a line of Power Brick heat sinks (available through Digi-Key Electronics and Arrow) that are specially designed to cool eighth-, quarter-, half-, and full-sized DC to DC power converters and power modules. Power Brick heat sinks feature ATS’ patented maxiFLOW™ design, which reduces the air pressure drop and provides greater surface area for more effective convection cooling.

Power Brick heat sinks are a critical component for the optimal thermal management of electronic devices because DC/DC power converters are used in many applications and across a number of industries, including communications, health care, computing, and more.

DC/DC converters are electronic circuits that convert direct current (DC) from one voltage to another. Converters protect electronic devices from power sources that are too strong or step up the level of the system input power to ensure it runs properly. The process works by way of a switching element that turns the initial DC signal into a square wave, which is alternating current (AC), and then passes it through a second filter that converts it back to DC at the necessary voltage.

As explained in an article on MaximIntegrated.com, “Switching power supplies offer higher efficiency than traditional linear power supplies. They can step-up, step-down, and invert. Some designs can isolate output voltage from the input.”

When converting electrical input to the proper voltage, DC/DC converters operate at a specified efficiency level, with some energy lost to heat. ATS Power Brick heat sinks provide the necessary step of dissipating that heat away from the converter to lower the junction temperature. This will optimize the performance of the component and ensure the longevity of the converter.

Anodization boosts Power Brick heat transfer capability

The pleasing gold color that has made Power Brick one of the most popular lines of heat sinks for DC/DC converters stems from the anodization process that ATS uses for its heat sinks. Anodization, as noted in an earlier blog post on this site, “changes the microscopic texture of a metal, making the surface durable, corrosion- and weather-resistant.”

Surface anodization works by turning the metal into the anode (positive electrode) of an electrolytic circuit. By passing an electric current through an acidic electrolytic solution, hydrogen is released at the cathode (negative electrode) and oxygen is released at the anode. The oxygen on the surface of the metal anode forms a deposit of metal oxide of varying thickness – anywhere from 1.8-25 microns.

The previous article explained, “The advantages of surface anodizing are the dielectric isolation of the cooling components from their electronics environment, and the significant increase in their surface emissivity.”

The emissivity coefficient of an anodized surface is typically 0.83-0.86, which is a significant boost from the standard coefficient of aluminum (0.04-0.06). By increasing the emissivity of the metal, there is also a significant enhancement of the metal’s radiant heat transfer coefficient.

The eye-catching gold color of ATS Power Brick heat sinks is added during the anodization process.

maxiFLOW™ design gives Power Brick an edge

Anodization of heat sinks is a standard practice to ensure that the metal components can withstand the rigors of dissipating heat from high-powered components. The feature that gives an ATS Power Brick heat sink the significant edge on its competitors is its patented maxiFLOW™ fin geometry, which has higher thermal performance for the physical volume it occupies compared to other heat sink designs.

maxiFLOW™ design is a low-profile, spread-fin array, which offers greater surface area for convection cooling. While it offers more surface area, it does not require additional space within the electronics package. This is an important feature in today’s electronics devices, which have an ever-increasing component density and in which space is always at a premium. This is an especially important feature for designers that want to cool DC/DC converters but are limited in the amount of available room.

Independent testing at Northeastern University of various heat sink designs demonstrated that maxiFLOW™ had the lowest thermal resistance for natural and forced convection, particularly when air flow velocity was below two meters per second. For heat sinks with the same base dimensions and fin height, maxiFLOW™ performed the best.

Testing has demonstrated that maxiFLOW™ can produce 20 percent lower junction temperatures and 40 percent lower thermal resistance than other heat sink designs. Utilizing maxiFLOW™ allows ATS Power Brick heat sinks to meet the industry standard base plate temperature of 100°C.
For more information about maxiFLOW™, watch the video below:

Power Brick meets industry standards

In the DC/DC market, there are a number of standard footprints that manufacturers use to offer flexibility for designers in choosing a vendor and in laying out a PCB. ATS has addressed the industry standard footprints with its Power Brick heat sinks. This will facilitate the use of the heat sinks for thermal management.

By optimizing the thermal management and meeting industry standards, Power Brick heat sinks can provide cost savings and reduce MTBF. Rather than having to over-design a system or a layout, engineers can turn to Power Brick as a thermal solution.

It is not only the industry standard footprints that Power Brick heat sinks have matched but also the standard hole patterns, which meet the standards set by the Distributed-power Open Systems Alliance (DOSA) to make assembly easy. The three millimeter holes (and soon 3.5 mm) match up to sizes commonly used in power brick manufacturing to ensure the proper connection for the heat sink (to avoid increasing the thermal resistance) and also to avoid using additional space in the tight confines of a PCB.

For the above reasons, Power Brick heat sinks are the “gold standard” for cooling DC/DC converters. Learn more in the video below:

For more information about Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. thermal management consulting and design services, visit www.qats.com or contact ATS at 781.769.2800 or ats-hq@qats.com.

References

i http://uk.rs-online.com/web/generalDisplay.html?file=automation/dc-converters-overview&id=infozone
ii https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/app-notes/index.mvp/id/2031
iii https://www.qats.com/cms/2010/11/09/how-heat-sink-anondization-improves-thermal-performance-part-1-of-2/
iv https://www.qats.com/cms/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Qpedia_Oct08_How-Air-Velocity-Affects-HS-Performance.pdf

Industry Tips for Placing DC/DC Converters on PCB

DC/DC Converters

This article outlines industry tips and suggestions about placing DC/DC power converters on a PCB with other components. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)


The design of a printed circuit board (PCB) that includes isolated DC to DC power converters is an important consideration to ensure the optimal performance of a system. Engineers have to be concerned with parasitic impedance and capacitance, the effects of the electromagnetic field created by the power converter on nearby components, as well as voltage accuracy, environmental noise reduction, and limiting radiated electro-magnetic interference (EMI).

This electromagnetic effect can cause significant voltage drops and improper design of a PCB could force engineers to make potentially costly changes (in terms of design time and budget), such as additional circuitry or upgrades to external components like power switches and capacitors.(i)

There are many advantages to using DC/DC converters and engineers adding these power bricks to a PCB do not have to be experts on power supply design, since the Distributed-power Open Systems Alliance (DOSA) has defined the industry standards for footprints and pinouts. Engineers know ahead of time how much space to dedicate and how the converter will be connected to the board.(ii)

“The brick typically comprises all the components (apart from filter circuits) required for a switching power supply including MOSFET switches, energy storage components, and switching controller,” writes Steven Keeping of Electronic Products on DigiKey.com. “By selecting a brick, an engineer does not have to worry about the intricacies of switching power supply design. The supplier has done all the work to ensure the unit operates optimally.”

While much of the work has been done by the manufacturer of the DC/DC converter to ensure its proper function, the engineer designing the system still has to consider the converter’s placement on a board carefully.

Parasitic Resistance, Impedance, and Capacitance

The most prominent issue that DC/DC converters can cause on a PCB is parasitic resistance, capacitance, and impedance. The power module creates an electromagnetic field that could disrupt the performance of components within its boundaries. As noted above, this could cause an unwanted voltage drop for the system and force more external power to be pushed through the converter.

According to a report published by members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) from Georgia Tech University, “Short and wide routing traces have lower parasitic resistances and inductances and therefore superimpose less ill-fated effects to the system. As a result, to reduce the parasitic resistance and inductance, the first rule in PCB layout is to place connected power components as close as possible and in a way that their interconnection lengths are minimal.”(iii)

An article on DigiKey.com adds, “The signal traces should not be routed underneath the module, unless they are sandwiched between ground planes, to avoid noise coupling. Similarly, to prevent any coupling, no component should be placed under the module.”(iv)

The IEEE report continued, “Ground planes are effectively close high-speed return paths for average forward signal paths, but arbitrarily increasing the ground plane may not necessarily reach critical nodes. In PCB technologies with more than two layers, middle layers are normally dedicated to ground planes, thereby decreasing their distance to high-current forward switching paths.”

It also recommended using parallel connections for the supply ground, load ground, and measurement instrument’s ground rather than series connectors that are potentially unreliable and that can add impedance between nodes. The report stated, “Undesired noise and high temperature gradients across the PCB usually result when problems with supply ground connections exist.”

DC/DC converters regulate the voltage supply to the system from external power supplies, which makes accuracy a critical component of its performance. In order to ensure the optimal accuracy, it is recommended that the feedback sense terminal is connected as close to the load as possible. It is this voltage that will be converted.

(Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

Radiated Electromagnetic Interference

Another major concern for placing a DC/DC converter on a PCB is the amount of radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) is emitted from the module. This is limited by industry standards (CISPR in Europe and FCC in the U.S.) but, as converters work by converting input voltage to AC before converting it back to DC at the correct voltage, there is an electromagnetic field that is produced when the converter is in use.

To minimize the effects of this EMI, “High-frequency nodes should be as short as possible. The metal paths act as antennas and their frequency range is directly proportional to their length. High frequency signal-return paths should be as close as possible to their respective forward paths. The two traces will therefore generate equal but opposite magnetic fields, canceling each other and hence reducing radiated EMI.”(v)

Tim Hegarty, writing for EDN Network, said, “A passive shield layer is established by placing a ground plane as close as possible to the switching loop by using a minimum dielectric thickness. The horizontal current flow on the top layer sets up a vertical flux pattern. The resulting magnetic field induces a current, opposite in direction to the power loop, in the shield layer.

“By Lenz’s Law, the current in the shield layer generates a magnetic field to counteract the original power loop’s magnetic field. The result is an H-field self-cancellation that amounts to lower parasitic inductance, reduced switch-node voltage overshoot, and enhanced suppression of EMI. Having an uninterrupted, continuous shield plane on layer 2 underneath and at closest proximity to the power loop offers the best performance.”(vi)

On DigiKey.com, Steve Taranovich of Electronic Products Magazine wrote, “The input of a DC/DC power module is a constant power at low frequencies. As the voltage decreases, current increases. This will present negative impedance at the input source. The converter will oscillate when the combination of the input filter’s impedance and the power module impedance becomes negative, causing a mismatch to occur. One way to prevent this is to ensure that the output impedance of the filter is much smaller than the input impedance of the power module at all frequencies.”(vii)

Another issue related to electromagnetic field is ground bounce, which is produced by changing magnetic flux due to the fast-changing currents. One of the solutions to prevent this problem, which could cause noise in video and audio devices, is to ensure that “true ground” is at the low end of the load and that all the other points are part of the ground return. In a two-layer PCB, Jeff Barrow of Analog.com also suggests, “A well-planned cut in the ground plane will constrain the return current to a minimum loop area and greatly reduce the bounce. Any residual bounce voltage that is developed in the cut return line is isolated from the general ground plane.”(viii)

Conclusions

Industry standard DC/DC converters have made adding a power supply to a PCB easier for engineers in terms of known sizes and connections. The footprint of a power module is known, but engineers still have important considerations to make before deciding where it should be placed. Keeping in mind the effects of parasitic impedance, capacitance, and resistance and ensuring that the electromagnetic interference will not surpass industry standards or affect other components on the board will ensure optimal performance of the system as a whole.

Using the design tips that are listed here, engineers are well on their way to creating an effective PCB layout with a DC/DC converter. Using Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. (ATS) Power Brick heat sinks will ensure the proper thermal management of the converters and of the board.
Learn more about Power Brick heat sinks at https://www.qats.com/eShop.aspx?productGroup=0&subGroup=2&q=Power%20Brick.

For more information about Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. thermal management consulting and design services, visit www.qats.com or contact ATS at 781.769.2800 or ats-hq@qats.com.

References

i http://rincon-mora.gatech.edu/research/pcb.pdf
ii http://www.digikey.com/en/articles/techzone/2012/dec/an-introduction-to-board-mounted-dcdc-converter-bricks
iii http://rincon-mora.gatech.edu/research/pcb.pdf
iv http://www.digikey.com/en/articles/techzone/2012/jul/proper-pcb-layout-minimizes-noise-coupling-for-point-of-load-converter-modules
v http://rincon-mora.gatech.edu/research/pcb.pdf
vi http://www.edn.com/design/power-management/4439749/3/DC-DC-converter-PCB-layout–Part-2
vii http://www.digikey.com/en/articles/techzone/2011/dec/conducted-and-radiated-emissions-reduction-techniques-for-power-modules
viii https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e3bb/49a1403b2da7d3d77e7024f7be208ee3a732.pdf

Case Study: LED Solution for Outdoor Canopy Array

Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. (ATS) was approached by a company interested in a new design for an outdoor LED unit that would be installed in gas station canopies. The original unit was bolted together and contained a molded plastic shroud that held the LED array, the PCB, and an extruded aluminum heat sink.

ATS engineers designed an aesthetically pleasing alternative that utilized natural convection cooling, while increasing the number of the LEDs in the array and its power. The engineers met the customer’s budget and thermal performance requirements.

Challenge: Create an outdoor canopy device that would increase the number of LED in the array, increase power to maximum of 120 watts, and increase lumens, while cooling the device through natural convection.

Chip/Component: The device had to hold an LED array and the PCB that powered it.

Analysis: Analytical modeling and CFD simulations determined the optimal fin efficiency to allow air through the device and across the heat sink, the spreading resistance. The weight of the device was also considered, as it would be outside above customers.

Solution: An aesthetically-pleasing, one-piece, casted unit with built-in electronics box for LED array and PCB was created. There was one inch of headroom between the heat sink and the canopy to allow for heat dissipation and the casting would allow heat transfer as well as allow air to flow through the system.

Net Result: The customer was able to add LEDs to the array and increase power. The new unit also simplified the manufacturing process and cut manufacturing costs.

For more information about Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. thermal management consulting and design services, visit www.qats.com or contact ATS at 781.769.2800 or ats-hq@qats.com.

Technical Discussion of ATS Telecom PCB solution

Last year, Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. (ATS) was brought in to assist a customer with finding a thermal solution for a PCB that was included in a data center rack being used in the telecommunications industry. The engineers needed to keep in consideration that the board’s two power-dissipating components were on opposite ends and the airflow across the board could be from either side.

Telecom PCB

The PCB layout that ATS engineer Vineet Barot was asked to design a thermal solution for included two components on opposite ends and airflow that could be coming from either direction. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

The original solution had been to use heat sinks embedded with heat pipes, but the client was looking for a more cost-effective and a more reliable solution. The client approached ATS and Field Application Engineer Vineet Barot examined the problem to find the best answer. Using analytical and CFD modeling, he was able to determine that ATS’ patented maxiFLOW™ heat sinks would provide the solution.

Vineet sat down with Marketing Director John O’Day and Marketing Communications Specialist Josh Perry to discuss the challenges that he faced in this project and the importance of using analytical modeling to back up the results of the CFD (computational fluid dynamics).

JP: Thanks for sitting down with us Vineet. How was the project presented to you by the client?
VB: They had a board that was unique – where it would be inserted into a rack, but it could be inserted in either direction. So, we faced a unique challenge because airflow could be from either side of the board. There were two components on either side of the board, so if airflow was coming from one side then component ‘A’ would get hot and from the other side then component ‘B’ would get hot. The other thing was that the customer, who is a very smart thermal engineer, had already set up everything and he was planning on using these heat sinks that had heat pipes embedded in them. The goal was to try and come up with a heat sink that would do the same thing, hopefully without requiring the heat pipes.

JO: Can we talk for a second about the application? You mentioned that airflow was from either side, the board was going to be used in a data center or a telecom node?
VB: It was for a telecom company.

JP: Was there a reason he didn’t want to use a heat pipe?
VB: I think probably cost and reliability. We use heat pipes embedded in the heat sinks too, so it’s not a something we never want to use, but the client wanted to throw that at us and see if we had alternatives.

JP: Can you take us through the board and the challenges that you saw?
VB: As you can see from this slide, there are four main components and two of the hottest ones are on the edge. Airflow can be from right to left or left to right, so which one would be the worst-case scenario?

Telecom PCB

JO: From right to left, I think?
VB: Correct. This one is a straightforward one to figure out because not only is the component smaller but the power is also higher. Even though [air] can go both ways, there’s a worst-case scenario.

This was the customer’s idea – a straight-fin heat sink with a heat pipe and he put one block of heat pipe in there instead of two or three heat pipes that would normally be embedded in there. You can clearly see what the goal was. You have a small component in here, you want to put a large heat sink over the top and you want to spread the heat throughout the base of the heat sink. All the other components are also occupied by straight-fin heat sinks.

JO: Okay, at this point in the analysis, this is the rough estimate of the problem that you face?
VB: This is a straightforward project in terms of problem definition, which can be a big issue sometimes. This time problem definition was clear because the customer had defined the exact heat sink that they wanted to use. It’s not a bad heat sink they just wanted an improvement, cost-wise, reliability-wise.

This is the G600, which is the air going from left to right. The two main components are represented here and we want to make sure that the junction temperatures that the CFD calculated is lower than the maximum junction temperatures allowed, which they were. These heat sinks work. As we always like to do at ATS, we like to have two, independent solutions to verify any problem. That was the CFD result but we also did the analytical modeling to see what these heat sinks are capable of and the percent difference from CFD was less than 10 percent. Twenty percent is the goal typically. If it’s less than 20 percent then you know you’re in the ballpark.

(Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

(Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

JO: Do you use a spreadsheet to do these analytical modeling?
VB: HSM, which is our heat sink modeling tool, and then for determining what velocity you have through the fins, the correct way of doing this is to come up with the flow pattern on your own. You go through all the formulas in the book and determine what the flow will be everywhere or figure out what CFD is giving you for the fan curve and check it with analytical modeling. You can look at pressure drop in there, look at the fan curve and see if you’re in the ballpark. You can also check other things in CFD, for example flow balance. Input the flow data into HSM and it will spit out what the thermal performance is for any given heat sink. HSM calculations are based on its internal formulas.

JO: We effectively have a proprietary internal tool. We’ve made a conscious decision to use it.
VB: To actually use it is unique. Not everybody would use it. A lot of people would skip this step and go straight to CFD. We use CFD too but we want to make sure that it’s on the right path.

JP: What do you see as the benefit of doing both analytical and CFD modeling?
VB: CFD, because it’s so easy to use, can be a tool that will lead you astray if you don’t check it because it’s very easy to use and the software can’t tell you if your results are accurate. If you do any calculation, you use a calculator. The calculator is never going to give you a wrong answer but just because you’re using a calculator doesn’t mean that you’re doing the math right. You want to have a secondary answer to verify that what you did is correct.

JP: What was the solution that you came up with for this particular challenge?
VB: We replaced these heat sinks with the heat pipe with maxiFLOW™, no heat pipe needed. One of the little tricks that I used was to off-set the heat sinks a little bit so that these fins are out here and so the airflow here would be kind of unobstructed. And I set this one a little lower so it would have some fins over here, not much, that would be unobstructed. The G600 configurations worked out with the junction temperatures being below what the maximum requirement was without having to use any heat pipes for the main components. There is also a note showing that one of the ancillary components was also below the max. Analytical modeling of that was within 10-11 percent.

The final PCB layout with maxiFLOW heat sinks covering the hottest components on both ends of the board. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

The final PCB layout with maxiFLOW heat sinks covering the hottest components on both ends of the board. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

As you noted, this was the worst-case scenario, going from right to left and you can see because it’s the worst-case scenario this tiny little component here that’s 14 watts that’s having all this pre-heated air going into it, it’s junction temperature was exactly at the maximum allowed. That’s not entirely great. We want to build in a little bit of margin but it was below what was needed.

The conclusion here was that maxiFLOW™ was able to provide enough cooling without needing to use the heat pipes and analytical calculation agreed to less than 20 percent. We would need to explore some alternate designs and strategies if we want to reduce the junction temperature even further because that close to the maximum temperature is uncomfortable. The other idea that we had was to switch the remaining heat sinks, the ones in the middle, which are straight fin, also to maxiFLOW™ to reduce pressure drop and to get more flow through this final component.

(Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

(Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

JP: If you have an idea like that, is it something that you broach with the customer?
VB: They really liked the result. If this was a project where the customer said, ‘Yep, we need this,’ then we would have said here’s the initial result and we have an additional strategy. At that point the customer would have said, ‘Yeah this is making us uncomfortable and we need to explore further’ or they would have said, ‘You know what? Fourteen watts is a max and I don’t know if we’ll ever go to 14 watts or the ambient we’re saying is 50°C but we don’t know that it will ever get to 50°C so the fact that you’re at max junction temperature at the worst-case scenario is okay by us.’

JP: Do you always test for the worst-case scenario?
VB: It’s always at the worst-case scenario. It’s always at the max power and maximum ambient temperature.

JP: Was this the first option that we came up with, using maxiFLOW™? Were there other options that we explored?
VB: Pretty much. The way that I approached it was doing the analytical first. You can generate 50 results from analytical modeling in an hour whereas it takes a day and a half for every CFD model – or longer. These numbers here were arrived at with analytical modeling; the height, the width, the top width, were all from analytical modeling, base thickness to measure spreading resistance, all of that was done on HSM and spreadsheets to say this will work.

JP: Do you find that people outside ATS aren’t doing analytical?
VB: No one is doing it, which is really bad because it’s very useful. It gives you a quick idea if it’s acceptable, if this solution is feasible.

To learn more about Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. consulting services, visit www.qats.com or contact ATS at 781.769.2800 or ats-hq@qats.com.

ATS welcomes engineering students from Tufts

Tufts University

Dr. Bahman Tavassoli of Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. gives a demonstration of a wind tunnel to Dr. Marc Hodes (left) and a group of students from Tufts University. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)


On Friday, Oct. 14, Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc. (ATS) welcomed Dr. Marc Hodes and a group of six mechanical engineering students from Tufts University to its Norwood, Mass. campus. The students learned about the company, its products, and took a tour of two of ATS’ four laboratories to see some of the testing equipment utilized by ATS engineers.

After a welcome from ATS founder, President and CEO Dr. Kaveh Azar, the students enjoyed a brief introduction from Marketing Director John O’Day about the company, its products, and the importance of thermal management in the design of today’s high-powered electronics.

The lab tours were led by Dr. Bahman Tavassoli, ATS Chief Technologist. First, he took the students into the Characterization Lab to demonstrate the BWT-104 open-loop wind tunnel and the CLWT-067 closed-loop wind tunnel. The students learned how ATS engineers use Candlestick sensors, thermocouples and the iQ-200 to measure air velocity, temperature, and pressure across a PCB using one system. There was also a thermVIEW Liquid Crystal Thermography unit set up, in which ATS engineers use infrared (IR) cameras to examine hot spots on a cold plate.

Tufts University

Students take a closer look at ATS testing equipment. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

Dr. Bahman Tavassoli

Dr. Tavassoli answers questions from Tufts University students. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

The Tufts students learned more than simply how the testing processes worked. They also learned why thermal management is an important consideration in the early stages of a design. Dr. Tavassoli and Dr. Hodes spoke of their professional experiences in the field of thermal engineering and where projects had gone wrong when thermal issues were not considered in the planning stages.

Dr. Azar also joined the students in the lab to show them the wicking material being used by ATS engineers in state-of-the-art vapor chamber designs.

Tufts University

ATS CEO, President and founder Dr. Kaveh Azar speaks with the student from Tufts in the Characterization Lab. (Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc.)

After the Characterization Lab, the students were taken into the Electronics Lab and were given a demonstration of the Water Flow Visualization equipment. ATS engineers use the equipment to test how air will flow through a system.

The students asked numerous questions of Dr. Tavassoli to get a better idea of the important concepts of thermal engineering that were presented in the 90-minute visit to ATS. Now, the students will have the real-world applications that they saw at ATS in mind when learning the concepts of thermodynamics, thermal fluids, and more in their Tufts courses.

To learn more about Advanced Thermal Solutions, Inc., visit www.qats.com or contact ATS at 781.769.2800 or ats-hq@qats.com.